Ganoderma lucidum is a necessary condition, in the oval, double cell wall, yellow brown spore, not the appearance of the mushroom shape, color identification. - text / Xu Ruixiang
The classification of ancient Chinese Ganoderma lucidum According to Ge Hong "Baopuzi" in texture is divided into "Shi Zhi, Muzhi, Meizhi, fungi, grass Zhi", and one of the fungus species according to Liang Dai Tao Hongjing divided into its external form "Qingzhi, Ganoderma lucidum, Huang Zhi, Bai Zhi, black Chi, purple Chi" and other six Chi.
"Compendium of Materia Medica" for the taste of Liu Zhi, the function is described in detail, Liu Zhi have their own different effects and efficacy, so six color Ganoderma is common in the ancient books.
But six color Ganoderma whether there is, or the so-called ancient six Chi are all Ganoderma lucidum? As the former only the description of the external form, no samples available for comparison, so the ancient Chinese records of six-color Ganoderma lucidum, to modern scientific research results still can not be clearly identified.
The Definition of Ganoderma in Western Science
According to the modern East and West scientific integration research, Ganoderma should belong to the fungus sector in a class. In the fungal classification system established by Alexopoulus in 1979, Ganoderma should belong to the genus Myceteae, Amastigomycota, Basidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, ) In the Ganoderma (Ganoderma).
Ganoderma lucidum is the 1881 Finnish botanist Karsten based on the mushroom body has a bright skin and established, and to Ganoderma lucidum G. lucidum (W.Cust.:Fr.) Karst. Then the definition of Ganoderma lucidum by Donk, Murrill, Fertado, Steyaert and other scholars of the study, that the main feature of Ganoderma lucidum with its double cell wall of the spore.
The spores of Ganoderma lucidum were oval, the outer cell wall was thin and transparent, the inner cell wall was thicker and yellowish and "verrucous." It can be seen, whether the necessary conditions for the Ganoderma lucidum is "oval", "double cell wall", "yellow brown" of the spore, and not mushroom body (fruiting body appearance or color, etc. can be identified The
Microscopic morphology of Ganoderma lucidum under optical microscope. The spores of Ganoderma lucidum
Have the characteristics of "oval, double cell wall, yellowish".
Microscopic morphology of Ganoderma lucidum under electron microscope
Ancient "Liu Zhi" may correspond to the modern scientific name
Based on the modern fungus classification system, with reference to the so-called Liu Zhi in ancient books, by the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Ganoderma lucidum classification expert Mr. Zhao Jiding research, that Liu Zi's scientific name should be as follows:
(A) Ganoderma: when Jane said, "Ganoderma also known as Dandy, Health Huoshan. Odor Bittering non-toxic, attending chest knot, Yi Xin Qi ... ..." Generally called Ganoderma lucidum [G. lucidum (W.Cust.:Fr The main feature is the mushroom kidney shape, semi - circular or nearly round, the surface of reddish - brown paint - like luster, fungus and bacteria umbrella with the same color or deeper.
Ganzhi non-toxic, attending deafness, Lee joint, Yi Jing gas, tough bones, good color, treatment of virtual labor, governance hemorrhoids. "The characteristics of the purple is the bacteria umbrella Brown, purple black to near black, bacteria for the uniform brown to millet brown, the top of the spore than the general Ganoderma lucidum, China Zizhi (G. sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang) for such representative species.
(3) Huang Zhizhi: Shi Zhen said, "Huang Zhi, also known as Jinzhi. Gan Ping non-toxic, attending hens five evil, good temper, soothe the nerves." According to Ge Hong in "Baopuzi" described " Red, white, black, blue, yellow five, yellow, such as Zijin, the big ten pounds, small three or four pounds, "that one of Huang may be sulfur bacteria [Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull .: Fr.) Murr .], This fungus fresh when the mushroom meat succulent, fresh specimens often up to several kilograms of heavy.
(4) Bai Zhi: Shi Zhen said, "white jade, also known as jade. Xinping non-toxic, attending cough inverse gas, benefit lung gas, Tongli mouth and nose, strong Zhi Yi, Ansett." "Baopuzi" described White fungus (Fumitopsis officinalis (Vill .: Fr.) Bond. Et Sing.] May be like this. This fungal fleshy white, such as horseshoe, large can be a few pounds, was born in pine and other coniferous trees.
(Five) black and white: when the "black Zhizhi also known as Hyun Chi. Xianping non-toxic, attending diarrhea, Lee waterway, kidney qi, through Jiuqiao, intelligent investigation." According to "mining map" records, Valley of the yin, black cover red, black stems, taste bitter. According to the above, black fungus may be fungi with black fungus umbrella and fungus such as Amauroderma rugosum (Bl.et Nees) Tarrend and Polyporus melanopus Fr.
(6) Qingzhi: when Jane said, "Qingzhi also known as Longzhi. Acidic non-toxic, attending eyesight, make up the liver gas, good spirit." "Baopuzi" cloud "green, such as Tsui Yu" Coriolus versicolor (L .: Fr.) Quel.] May be the representative of the green fungus, this fungus also has a leather cover, the surface has short hair, so rich variety of color changes.
In addition, the distribution of Ganji, Bai Zhi, Qingzhi was born in Songshan, Huashan and Taishan, belonging to the Yellow River Basin, and the Yellow River is located in the Yangtze River Basin. , Fungal ecological habits and distribution areas are closely related.
Moreover, six Chi refers to all for a single category, but six groups. In the case of Ginkgo, the common "red" Ganoderma lucidum has G. lucidum and G. tsugae, and G. neo-japonicum and G. sinense. At present, the research on cultivation, pharmacology and clinical research is mainly based on these two kinds of Ganoderma lucidum. In other words, the classification and pharmacological research reports of Ganoderma lucidum and other yellow, white, white and black Ganoderma lucidum are not yet Was officially published.
This article reproduced from Ganoderma News Network, author Wu Tingyao